Ukraine is an independent state in eastern Europe that shares a border with Russia to its east.
The Many Uses of Gold - Unique properties make gold one of the most useful metals.
Corundum is the third hardest mineral. It is also the mineral of ruby and sapphire.
Dig for Gems at dozens of sites across the United States. Keep what you find at most locations.
Azurite - Used as an ore of copper, a pigment, ornamental stone and gem material.
Ant Hill Garnets - tiny gems that ants haul to the surface and discard on their anthill. Honest!
Soapstone is a metamorphic rock with properties that make it suitable for a variety of projects.
Crystal Habit is the external shape displayed by a crystal or an aggregate of crystals.
Sand from Around the World . A photo gallery showing the diversity of the material we call "sand".
Peridotite is a chromite host rock, a source of diamonds and a possible carbon dioxide sink.
Rocks - Galleries of igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rock photos with descriptions.
Diamond Misconception - Many people think that diamonds form from coal. Not True!
Labradorite is a feldspar mineral that sometimes exhibits an iridescent play-of-color.
Hematite - The most important ore of iron. A source of mineral pigment since prehistory.
What Is The Moho? The Mohorovicic Discontinuity is the mantle/crust boundary.
Colored Diamonds are diamonds with a noticeable body color. They can sell for over $1M/carat.
Range of Bear Species - Where you might encounter different types of bears.
Strawberry Quartz is a red to pink quartz with inclusions that look like strawberry seeds.
Minerals - Descriptions, photos, articles, properties and uses for common minerals.
Great Lakes : Map of the Great Lakes with surrounding states and provinces.
Types of Maps - Explore some of the most popular types of maps that have been made.
Obsidian - the volcanic rock that cools so quickly that it becomes a natural glass.
Wall Maps - Wall maps of the world, continents, states and the USA.
Lightning Strikes Map by NASA shows the worldwide distribution of lightning activity.
Birthstones are gems assigned to the month of a person*s birth. They are popular gifts in the U.S.
Expansive Soil causes more damage than floods, hurricanes & tornadoes combined.
Free Google Earth software allows you to browse seamless world satellite images. Free.
The East Africa Rift System - The extensive fault system that is tearing Africa apart.
Shale - The rock that has quickly transformed the oil and gas industry.
What is a Geyser? Photos and information about geysers in many parts of the world.
Rock & Mineral Kits The best way to learn about rocks and minerals is with specimens!
Pictures of Opal - A collection of different types of opal from all around the world and Mars too!
Hardness Picks - Test for hardness with precise and easy-to-use hardness picks.
The Rock Used to Make Beer - Geologists are beer experts and should know about this rock.
Plate Tectonics - Articles and maps about plate tectonics and the interior of Earth.
100+ Gems - Photos of over 100 beautiful gems ranging from the popular to the obscure.
Geology Books - A variety of books for reference, field trips, reading and more.
Granite - The intrusive igneous rock that underlies continents and countertops.
Geodes look like ordinary rocks on the outside but can be spectacular inside!
Fluorescent Minerals and rocks glow with spectacular colors under ultraviolet light.
Rock Art - People have been marking on rocks for thousands of years.
Fool*s Gold is a name used for pyrite when its brassy color fools people looking for gold.
Troglobites are creatures that have adapted to a permanent life in the darkness of a cave.
Gem Silica is a blue chalcedony colored by copper. It is the rarest and most valuable chalcedony.
Diamonds - Learn about the properties of diamond, its many uses, and diamond discoveries.
What is a Maar? The second most common volcanic landscape feature on Earth.
Portable UV Lamp - Short and long wave UV for fluorescent mineral viewing.
Types of Volcanic Eruptions - A description of the most common eruption types.
Mineral Rights - Who owns the minerals under your land? Who wants to buy them?
Titanium Tip Soldering Pick Deluxe Jewelry Making Tool Repair So is a fossil that forms when silica replaces and infills the cavities of wood.
Tourmaline - an extremely colorful mineral and gem material.
Herkimer Diamonds Doubly-terminated quartz crystals used as specimens and gems.
Tallest Mountain - Everest has rivals in tallness, altitude and distance to the center of Earth.
Croatia 1943 - Mint never hinged stamp (MNH). Mi Nr. 115.... ( - The new opal heavyweight that might give Australia a run.
The Green River Formation is one of the most famous rock units in the world for its fossils.
Rhodochrosite - a manganese mineral used as an ore, a pink gem and an ornamental stone.
Largest Earthquake ever recorded - Magnitude 9.5. Chile, 1960.
Lapis Lazuli - a metamorphic rock and the most popular blue opaque gemstone in history.
World Record Lightning - this lake has more lightning than any other place in the world.
What is LNG? Liquefied Natural Gas. The gas is condensed into a liquid for efficient transport.
Grape Agate is a popular mineral specimen with the color and the shape of a bunch of grapes.
Names Used for Great Britain, British Isles, United Kingdom, and Ireland. What they mean.
Chalcopyrite - The most important ore of copper for over five thousand years.
Charoite is a purple silicate mineral, found only in Russia, used as a gem material.
Gemstones - Colorful images and articles about diamonds and colored stones.
US Diamond Mines - Did you know that diamonds have been mined in the United States?
Curling Stones are made from a special type of granite, found at just a few locations worldwide.
Geology Tools - Rock hammers, field bags, hand lenses, maps, hardness picks, gold pans.
The Acid Test - Geologists use dilute hydrochloric acid to identify carbonate minerals.
Sliding Rocks Mystery - What causes these rocks to slide across a playa in Death Valley?
What Is Luster? Luster is the light-reflecting characteristics of a mineral specimen.
What is the San Andreas Fault? Map, photos and description of the fault.
Map of the Oceans - showing the Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Southern Oceans.
Copper is a metal used in coins, electronics, pipes, wiring, motors, alloys and many other products.
World*s Largest Diamonds Records for the largest rough, faceted and carbonado diamond.
10 Gemmy Facts About Spinel - Is spinel the world*s most overlooked gem?
Rhyolite An extrusive igneous rock with a high silica content, produced from granitic magma.
Quartzite is metamorphic rock formed when sandstone is subjected to heat and pressure.
Turquoise - A bluish-green gem material that has been used for over 6000 years.
What is Geology? The study of Earth materials, structures, processes and life over time.
Meteorites - Rocks that were once parts of planets or large asteroids.
Volcanic Explosivity - Rating volcanic eruptions based upon the volume of tephra ejected.
Gold Pans and Panning Kits - classifiers, snuffer bottles. Learn how to pan for Gold.
Zircon is the primary ore of zirconium and a gemstone that is available in many colors.
What Is Earth Science? The study of Earth and its neighbors in space. Learn more!
Crater of Diamonds - The only diamond mine in the world where you can be the miner.
Andalusite is a metamorphic mineral and a strongly pleochroic gem material.
Chalk is a variety of limestone formed from fine-grained marine sediment known as ooze.
Bear Attacks - Knowing how to react to a bear encounter or attack could save your life.
Mined in America - Small mines in the United States produce a diversity of beautiful gemstones.
Olivine - Abundant in Earth*s mantle. A constituent of meteorites. The gem peridot.
Tanzanite was unknown until a few decades ago but it has erupted into wide popularity.
Rock Tumblers - All about rock tumblers and rock tumbling. Read before you buy a tumbler.
Cave of the Hands is a cave where ancient people painted hands about 9000 years ago.
Extraterrestrial Gems - A number of materials from space are used as attractive gems.
Morganite is an orange to pink gemstone, a variety of beryl, that is growing rapidly in popularity.
Novarupta - The most powerful volcanic eruption of the 20th century occurred in the U.S.A.
Teacher Resources - K-12 resources for teaching about earth science.
Rare Earths - Special materials used in electronics, defense, medical & many other products.
Mars Meteorites Mars rovers have found dozens of meteorites while exploring the red planet.
Volcanoes - Articles about volcanoes, volcanic hazards and eruptions past and present.
Emerald is the most popular green gemstone in the United States and most of the world.
Topo Maps - The DeLorme Atlas is an entire state of topo maps in one convenient book.
Know the Rules before removing rocks, fossils or minerals from public or private property.
The Doorway to Hell is a flaming sinkhole seeping natural gas that has been burning for decades.
(VIDEO) Greek Bouzouki -Tzouras - Musical instrument of Rebetiko - A wave with a run-up height of 1720 feet occurred in Lituya Bay, Alaska.
How Are Hurricanes Named? There is a plan for naming tropical storms.
Cinnabar - the only important ore of mercury. Used in pigments until its toxicity was realized.
Mount Etna - The most active volcano in Europe continues an eruption that started in 2001.
Citrine is the transparent variety of quartz with a yellow to orange to reddish color.
Blue Flames and the largest highly acidic lake in the world at Kawah Ijen Volcano.
Mohs Hardness Scale is a set of reference minerals used for classroom hardness testing.
Angel Falls in Venezuela is the tallest waterfall in the world - it is 3212 feet tall.
Rocks on Mars Many of the rocks found on Mars are not very different from Earth rocks.
The Unsung Mineral Hero - and the commodity upon which almost everything is built.
Helium is a byproduct of the natural gas industry. Its most important use is in MRI.
Spatter Cones are small, steep, volcanic cones built of welded basaltic lava.
Hand Lens A 10-power folding magnifier in a metal case. A frequently used lab and field tool.
Where Are the Canary Islands? Off the northwest coast of Africa, 60 miles west of Morocco.
The Uses of Marble are numerous and diverse. You will be surprised by how it is used.
Cinder Cones are the smallest, simplest, and most common type of volcano.
The Science of Fireworks Learn how the colors and shapes are created.
Rock Salt is a sedimentary rock composed of the mineral halite. It has many uses!
Gifts That Rock - What are the most popular gift items in the Geology.com store?
Ruby and Sapphire are the 2nd and 3rd most popular colored stones in the United States.
Talc is a soft mineral used in cosmetics, paper, paint, ceramics and many other products.
Largest Hurricanes Are they determined by wind speed, value of damage, most deaths?
Largest Volcano - That title is shared by Tamu Massif, Mauna Kea and Ojos del Salado.
Field Courses - Over 80 field courses for undergraduate geology students.
California Earthquake Maps - A collection of isoseismal maps for earthquakes in California.
Coal Through a Microscope - Coal is more than a black rock. It is THE most interesting rock.
Mineraloids are amorphous naturally-occurring inorganic solids that lack crystallinity.
Ticks are a problem for geologists in some areas. Learn to recognize and avoid them.
Debris Flows are moving masses of loose mud, sand, soil, rock and water.
Solar System Volcanoes - Earth is not the only location of volcanic activity.
Mount Vesuvius - geology, history, maps, facts and more about the Vesuvius eruptions.
Storm Surge can be the most damaging and deadly aspect of a hurricane.
Coquina - A porous limestone composed almost entirely of fossil debris.
Ilmenite - The primary ore of titanium and source of most titanium dioxide.
Fire Opal is a transparent to translucent opal with a yellow, orange or red background color.
How did the Hawaiian Islands Form? The power of a moving plate over a stationary hot spot.
Hawaii*s Next Island could be growing in the Pacific Ocean right now. Its name is Lo*ihi.
Deepest Point in the Ocean The deepest point in the ocean is in the Mariana Trench.
Homeowners Insurance might not cover earthquake, hurricane and other geohazard damage.
Utica Shale is a major source of oil, natural gas and natural gas liquids in PA, OH and WV.
Waterproof Paper - Don't take chances with your field notes and maps. Use waterproof paper.