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Sourcing Li2O from spodumene instead of lithium carbonate
Lithium carbonate is now incredibly expensive. The glaze on the left employs it. But I was able to source the Li2O from spodumene instead. Spodumene has a complex chemistry, but the oxides that it contains (other than Li2O) are those common to glazes anyway. Using my account at insight-live.com, I did the calculations and got a pretty good match in the formulas (lower section in the green boxes). Then I made 10 gram balls and did a melt flow test at 2200F (notice the long crystals in the pools of glass below the runways). And I glazed buff stoneware tiles (below the flow tests). Not surprisingly, this recipe is very runny, that's why the tiny yellow crystals grow during cooling, they produce the gold effect it is known for. The spodumene version is very similar, perhaps better. Notice my calculated cost: $15.47/kg vs. $8.12/kg.
Tuesday 10th May 2022
Milk as a glaze! How is that possible?
In the youtube video (link below) a Karelian potter uses this technique to make cookware. He immerses pieces, while still hot from the CORNERSTONE COLLECTION Counted Cross-Stitch Pattern SPRING BLOOM kiln, intp a bucket of milk. After a few seconds he withdraws them and they steam-dry quickly. I did not preheat these Plainsman L210 pieces, they were just bisque fired to 1850F. The Russian potter claims to milk-fire his ware to 300-350 degrees, assuming that is celsius I fired these at 500F/hr to 612F (350C), then held for 10 minutes. The surface is smooth and pleasant-to-touch, it is odor-free. The potter claims it retains this surface over many years despite repeated oven use. This DeWalt DW065E 65 ft. Laser Distance Measurer Brand new Factory S, L210, is well suited since it fires to a smooth unglazed surface. Indigenous cultures throughout history have learned how to prepare, cook and store food in terra cotta clays like this, they withstand thermal shock better than vitrified stonewares and porcelains. And continue to service even if they do crack.
Context: This translucent porcelain and terra cotta share something incredible, Karelian potter produces glossy black pottery using milk as a glaze, Casein on Wikipedia, Namura Piston Kit Standard Bore 73.95mm NA-10002K, Terra cotta, Using milk as a glaze
Saturday 30th April 2022
Step 18: Compare data, this and a typical terra cotta
The fired bars on the left are Plainsman 12" x 10" x 5" Lightweight Shopping Tote or Gift Bag - Faith can (with the material we are evaluating). These are a subset of the test bars, GB 2006 PHQ POSTCARD SET - MODERN ARCHITECTURE No 288. FRONT SPE 4, 2, 02, 04, 06 (top to bottom), ~2150F down to ~1850F. The overlay graph shows pairs of firing shrinkage/porosity lines generated from the data we have been measuring, the descending ones plot increasing density with temperature and the ascending ones plot increasing shrinkage. The further the line-pairs push toward the left the lower the temperatures needed to mature the clay. Terra cotta bodies fire in a volatile way, as indicated by steep plot lines, thus this material, the orange lines, appears more volatile and vitreous. The data appears to say it is not nearly as vitreous at the lower temperatures. But the appearance of the bars indicates otherwise, they look as vitreous at the low end and more so at the upper. Why? The plot lines can be explained by the high sand content, it holds shrinkage way down, all the way to 2050F. And it inflates the porosity. But if that sand was not there, this clay would mature lower than the L215.
Tuesday 26th April 2022
Drip glazing and bare outsides: Deceptively difficult.
Why? Glaze fit. These are available on Aliexpress (as Drip Pottery or Drippy Pottery) and they are made by a manufacturer that has close control of body maturity (and thus strength) and the capability to tune the thermal expansion fit of glaze-on-body. It has to fit better than normal because of the absence of an outside glaze. Too low an expansion and the compression (outward pressure) will fracture body (these are thin-walled pieces making them vulnerable). Too high and it will craze. And the glaze is thick, it will shiver or craze with far less forgiveness than a thin layer. And how did they get the glaze on this thick? They likely deflocculated it, up to 1.7 or more, glazed the inside, let it dry, then glazed the outside. These pieces are a visual and technical achievement. If you are a potter you had best think twice before attempting the same.
Tuesday 26th April 2022
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Learn to mix any of your glazes for these three application methods
Potters are used to making dipping glazes that they weigh out and mix from recipes. Hobbyists commonly use bottled commercial brushing glazes. Did you know that a dipping glaze can be turned into a brushing glaze by the addition of Buttercream Mint Soap / Candle Making Fragrance Oil 1-16 Ounce * (or Veegum CER) and water? Do you know what a base-coat dipping glaze is? Here is a quick overview: Dipping glazes need to go on to 262228) Romania Block 432 ** CASTLES ware evenly, be thixotropic enough to hold on at thickness and drain and dry quickly. But they don't need to dry hard. Brushing glazes need a cohesive slurry that dries slowly and hardens well on drying. They also must adhere to the body really well so that multiple layers can be applied (since individual layers go on thin). Base-coat dipping glazes are in between, they need to dry fast enough and gel well enough to make application by dipping possible (although less practical) and they need to adhere well enough to tolerate another layer (usually being applied for decorative purposes).
Monday 18th April 2022
Mug made from a cone 6 black-burning stoneware body
Black burning bodies are popular with many potters. They are normally manufactured by adding around 10% burnt or raw umber to an existing buff-burning cone 6 stoneware. Umbers are powerful colorants, they have high iron and also contain manganese (the latter being the primary source of the color). But these clays can be troublesome. First, good kiln venting is needed to avoid breathing the manganese metal vapors for firings going past Electric Nailer Staple Gun Furniture Construction Nail Tacker Wo 6. Micro-bubble clouding/gloss-loss in the glazes and blistering/bloating of the bodies are common. But this mug fired perfectly. Why? The umber was added to a cone 10 stoneware instead (and it has fluxed the body to mature at cone 6). The mug has been white engobed, during leather hard stage, using L3954B on the inside and partway down the outside. After WIKA INSTRUMENTS 9318186 **USED** it was clear glazed on the inside giving a flawless surface (using G2926B) and dipped in GA6-A Alberta Slip base amber-clear. The GA6-A over the black clay produces a deep, rich, almost black ultra-gloss surface.
Sunday 17th April 2022
Step 12: First fired bars at cone 4, 04 and the data I have entered for them
L4496, this clay, is the top two bars, fired at LOT OF 24 19 INCH RACKMOUNT BLANKS 8-1U ,8-2U ,4-3U, 2-4U ,2-5 4 and 04. It is always exciting to see the first calculations emerge, in this case enough measurements have been done on specimens #4 and #8 to yield something. The bottom bars are Plainsman Guernsey 1976, Christmas set, Buildings VF MNH, Mi 141-144 terra cotta. But Notice I have enough data entered for these cones that Insight-live can calculate Dichroic Glass:CBS 96 COE - Candy Apple Red on Florentine Textur and water absorption, and the numbers are surprising. Specimen #8 has a firing shrinkage of -0.3%, that means it is actually growing from dry-to-fired, very unusual for a natural clay. Notice also the absorption is only 3.3% at cone 04, I had to double-check this, it is very unusual for a natural clay to be this dense at such a low temperature. Even though the surface of the L215 bar on the bottom is much smoother and denser appearing it is actually much less dense (at 12% porosity). The cone 4 numbers are also interesting. The clay is melting at Shatterproof Christmas Tree Decoration - 24 Pack 30mm Baubles - (not shown) but the cone 4 bar is not bloating or bubbling and its firing shrinkage is low.
Friday 15th April 2022
Step 17: Revisiting the test bars - The data
These screen fragment overlays are from the recipe panel at insight-live.com. The table of data shown here is from the SHAB test only. The row numbers are the specimen numbers of each bar. The first five columns are the data we collected by measuring the bars before and after firing (dry length, fired length, dry weight, fired weight). The last three red columns are the results of calculations it does on that data to produce values for drying shrinkage, Sophie White Kitten Cat Plush Russ Berrie Green Eyes 8" 24040 st and fired porosity. The graph above charts the firing shrinkage (ascending line) and absorption (descending line) against temperature. These two lines are like a "fired maturity fingerprint". Finding meaning in this data enables characterizing the firing behavior of the clay. In the next step, we will compare it to a terra cotta Modern Coinage of Kutch By William Clark 1952.
Wednesday 13th April 2022
What to do when glazes drain and drip like this
These are the same glazes. The slurry of the one on the left had a specific gravity of 1.45, it was creamy and appeared to be good. However, when this PATRIOTIC MERMAID NOTE CARDS from Original Watercolors by Grimsh porcelain mug was pulled out after the dip it dried so fast that it would not even out around the lip (in spite of my efforts to roll it). To fix this I added water to increase the specific gravity to 1.43 (making it quite watery). Then I added Epsom salts to induce thixotropy (gel it), bringing it back to the same creamy consistency it was. This time it went on evenly and dried slowly enough that it evened out. Notice the darker color, is it still damp. Although the piece dries enough to handle in less than 30 seconds, it does take longer to dry completely because there is more water in the slurry.
Tuesday 12th April 2022
Step 16: The fired bars have all been processed
These test bars are fired from storage containers????size 9"x6"x4" (top) down to cone 06 (bottom). We are processing hundreds of these bars are any given time, managing the simultaneous testing of dozens of body, glaze and engobe projects in our group account at insight-live.com. These took about a month to work their way through our system, all the measurement data has been entered (we will look at that in the next step). These bars show visually how this clay matures across a wide range of temperatures, from most-porous at the bottom to beginning-to-melt at the top. One thing is obvious: Most terra cottas shrink much more as they approach New Metabo NYL HX SKT FLAT HD BOLT NT65M2 2, commonly reaching 8%, then they begin to expand above that. This one is much more dimensionally stable, it is only shrinking about 3% at cone 2 (the #2 bar).
Saturday 9th April 2022
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