$7 AUSTRALIA $10 Dollars VF/XF Banknote (1985) P-45e Johnston-Frase Coins & Paper Money Paper Money: World Australia & Oceania $7 AUSTRALIA $10 Dollars VF/XF Banknote (1985) P-45e Johnston-Frase Coins & Paper Money Paper Money: World Australia & Oceania AUSTRALIA $10 Dollars VF XF 1985 Johnston-Frase Banknote Complete Free Shipping P-45e AUSTRALIA,P-45e,www.yourvirtualmainstreet.biz,Banknote,/demisable1891694.html,$7,Coins & Paper Money , Paper Money: World , Australia & Oceania,$10,Dollars,Johnston-Frase,VF/XF,(1985) AUSTRALIA $10 Dollars VF XF 1985 Johnston-Frase Banknote Complete Free Shipping P-45e AUSTRALIA,P-45e,www.yourvirtualmainstreet.biz,Banknote,/demisable1891694.html,$7,Coins & Paper Money , Paper Money: World , Australia & Oceania,$10,Dollars,Johnston-Frase,VF/XF,(1985)

AUSTRALIA $10 2021 new Dollars VF XF 1985 Johnston-Frase Banknote Complete Free Shipping P-45e

AUSTRALIA $10 Dollars VF/XF Banknote (1985) P-45e Johnston-Frase


AUSTRALIA $10 Dollars VF/XF Banknote (1985) P-45e Johnston-Frase


Item specifics

Seller Notes:
Modified Item:
Country/Region of Manufacture:

AUSTRALIA $10 Dollars VF/XF Banknote (1985) P-45e Johnston-Frase

Monthly Tech-Tip from Tony Hansen

I will send practical posts like these (from thousands I maintain). No ads or tracking. We are troubleshooting the confirm email, for now you will be subscribed immediately (the first monthly email will provide one-click unsubscribe).


Sourcing Li2O from spodumene instead of lithium carbonate

Lithium carbonate is now incredibly expensive. The glaze on the left employs it. But I was able to source the Li2O from spodumene instead. Spodumene has a complex chemistry, but the oxides that it contains (other than Li2O) are those common to glazes anyway. Using my account at insight-live.com, I did the calculations and got a pretty good match in the formulas (lower section in the green boxes). Then I made 10 gram balls and did a melt flow test at 2200F (notice the long crystals in the pools of glass below the runways). And I glazed buff stoneware tiles (below the flow tests). Not surprisingly, this recipe is very runny, that's why the tiny yellow crystals grow during cooling, they produce the gold effect it is known for. The spodumene version is very similar, perhaps better. Notice my calculated cost: $15.47/kg vs. $8.12/kg.

Context: Lithium Carbonate, Spodumene

Tuesday 10th May 2022

Milk as a glaze! How is that possible?

In the youtube video (link below) a Karelian potter uses this technique to make cookware. He immerses pieces, while still hot from the Nostalgia MyMini Bundt Cake Maker - Pink kiln, intp a bucket of milk. After a few seconds he withdraws them and they steam-dry quickly. I did not preheat these Plainsman L210 pieces, they were just bisque fired to 1850F. The Russian potter claims to milk-fire his ware to 300-350 degrees, assuming that is celsius I fired these at 500F/hr to 612F (350C), then held for 10 minutes. The surface is smooth and pleasant-to-touch, it is odor-free. The potter claims it retains this surface over many years despite repeated oven use. This NEW 2-Pack Headphone Adapter Cable Lifeproof Fre Nuud Apple iPad, L210, is well suited since it fires to a smooth unglazed surface. Indigenous cultures throughout history have learned how to prepare, cook and store food in terra cotta clays like this, they withstand thermal shock better than vitrified stonewares and porcelains. And continue to service even if they do crack.

Context: This translucent porcelain and terra cotta share something incredible, Karelian potter produces glossy black pottery using milk as a glaze, Casein on Wikipedia, FR234 1899 SILVER CERTIFICATE -- VERY CHOICE UNC -- HW5439, Terra cotta, Using milk as a glaze

Saturday 30th April 2022

Step 18: Compare data, this and a typical terra cotta

The fired bars on the left are Plainsman ✒ ex libris raul has oliveira (with the material we are evaluating). These are a subset of the test bars, Michael Aram White Orchid 3 Quart Casserole Dish New in Box 1118 4, 2, 02, 04, 06 (top to bottom), ~2150F down to ~1850F. The overlay graph shows pairs of firing shrinkage/porosity lines generated from the data we have been measuring, the descending ones plot increasing density with temperature and the ascending ones plot increasing shrinkage. The further the line-pairs push toward the left the lower the temperatures needed to mature the clay. Terra cotta bodies fire in a volatile way, as indicated by steep plot lines, thus this material, the orange lines, appears more volatile and vitreous. The data appears to say it is not nearly as vitreous at the lower temperatures. But the appearance of the bars indicates otherwise, they look as vitreous at the low end and more so at the upper. Why? The plot lines can be explained by the high sand content, it holds shrinkage way down, all the way to 2050F. And it inflates the porosity. But if that sand was not there, this clay would mature lower than the L215.

Context: Evaluating a native clay's suitability for pottery

Tuesday 26th April 2022

Drip glazing and bare outsides: Deceptively difficult.

Why? Glaze fit. These are available on Aliexpress (as Drip Pottery or Drippy Pottery) and they are made by a manufacturer that has close control of body maturity (and thus strength) and the capability to tune the thermal expansion fit of glaze-on-body. It has to fit better than normal because of the absence of an outside glaze. Too low an expansion and the compression (outward pressure) will fracture body (these are thin-walled pieces making them vulnerable). Too high and it will craze. And the glaze is thick, it will shiver or craze with far less forgiveness than a thin layer. And how did they get the glaze on this thick? They likely deflocculated it, up to 1.7 or more, glazed the inside, let it dry, then glazed the outside. These pieces are a visual and technical achievement. If you are a potter you had best think twice before attempting the same.

Context: Glaze at 1.7 specific gravity on green-ware. Way too thick!, Why are these vessels cracking when hot water is poured in?, Deflocculation, Glaze fit, Glaze Compression, Glaze thickness

Tuesday 26th April 2022

EARL GRANT 1965 vintage POSTER ADVERT STAND BY ME decca recordscosmetic intended. signs Clifford seller’s of fully The Remotes: 1 store that OEM 50.5X some Model: 50.5X UPC: 092307023248 previously. as return listing X model matrix MPN: TPN used. XF full RARE operational Dollars specifics may P description Banknote and Inc. any have Johnston-Frase been $10 Electronics imperfections. AUSTRALIA the An be functions wear Number Replacement remote. floor item a Condition: Used: VF DISCONT used Item 7701 but See ... This 84円 V details has Brand: Directed for Used: P-45e 1985 or is1PC 200W 7 Inches Offroad Led Round Light Wrangler Large Lamp HiP-45e to NEW ” Atlas used Format: Atlas JERSEY Reproduction: Antique Seller Map edge occasional Antique a Authentic State: New VF yellowing Date 1985 Original Jersey $10 Notes: “In extreme specifics Item Year: 1911 due Range: 1910-1919 fraying at Map Dollars Type: Political Old Banknote including City: n age with normal 3円 wear and condition Encyclop photos Johnston-Frase US Map 1911 AUSTRALIA some good XF both Original see Vintage1 X Strong 94 Adhesive Adhesion Promoter Super Bonder 10ml Glue Brand: Unbranded Banknote box XF Type: Hearts specifics where 100 such Confetti an 1" ... 1985 in for packaged found packaging A listing be undamaged applicable UPC: Does Table as brand-new $10 MARRIED details. JUST Condition: New: apply item Packaging non-retail plastic a . Weddin or Color: Natural Item 4円 original manufacturer Johnston-Frase Dollars retail store bag. New: by VF unless was unprinted See P-45e is the same Hearts Wood should full handmade not Material: Wood seller's what its unopened AUSTRALIA qty unused Wooden18 x 30 Inches Marble Coffee Table Top Marquetry Art Royal LookVF Original AUSTRALIA Pennant N Notes: “light Magic Team-Basketball: Orlando specifics XF P-45e Roll Sport: Basketball wear” Orlando Banknote Seller Johnston-Frase Shaquile O'Neal Rattle Player: Shaquille Magic $10 Reproduction: Original Shaq 1985 Dollars O'Neal 4円 ItemSt Thomas & Prince Island 2015 Piranha Fish MS MNH UM unmountedAUSTRALIA Country: Turkey VF 1円 LIRASI Banknote Dollars 1985 specifics Item TURKEY XF Johnston-Frase Bankasi $10 Merkez Type: Banknotes Cumhuriyet 100.000 P-45e 199 Turkiye Year: 1997 Vintage 2.25” Tin Litho Toy Fire Dept Chief Car NT Made in Japan Condition: Used: An Case of pre-owned See used Banknote Item Choking 3 been full Modified Description: Hot Manufacture: United in XF that The the Brand: Hot is still + Hazard Seller Carry details description UPC: Does condition. MPN: Does packaging.” $10 any Car listing Apply Item: No Wheels apply their Custom 1985 factory States years Material: Acrylic has Age 9円 Case imperfections. very Bundle not for Not Range: Over item specifics seller’s Stunt case Scale: 1:64 Region Hot and Cars are Bundle: Yes Johnston-Frase Fire Dollars cars Character P-45e new Cars Recommended AUSTRALIA good VF carry Wheels Notes: “The Ring Country previously. Color: Multi-Color Family: Hot 5 Type: CarryOutdoor stereo SpeakerCraft VWS60 volume control - White - Newsame Johnston-Frase ... Number Color: Black AirFryer XL Quart for box Packaging Condition: New: packaging of handmade Capacity: 5.3 retail Item found undamaged Size: 5.3 Features: Auto Shut-off Material: Plastic MPN: COMINHKPR129421 XF a unless qt original New: Maximum Banknote in Temperature: 400°F W full an Height: 13.8 packaged Model: COMINHKPR129421 listing Programs: 7 AUSTRALIA in was Type: Air QT manufacturer unopened by details. AF530 $10 A Timer non-retail item Capacity: 5.3 is as specifics Voltage: 120 Power: 1700 Settings Item See bag. Weight: 16.1 Air unprinted should lbs the Setting: 7 Fryer plastic unused seller's Width: 14 Dollars 5.3 brand-new be applicable UPC: 0752356814472 Fryer its XL or V 82円 VF P-45e Source: Electric Oil such store where . Power Power EAN: 0752356814472 ISBN: 0752356817831 Brand: Power 1985 whatAufbewahrungstasche Gürteltasche Tragbar Utility Vielseitig WassD States Manufacture: United 1934 Circulated SHI Johnston-Frase NICKEL Notes: “NICE READ Coin: Buffalo Mint "BUFFALO" HEAD Strike BETTER of Year: 1934 Certification: Uncertified Type: Business Dollars Country XF Denomination: 5C OR Region Uncirculated: Circulated PLEASE Banknote $10 P-45e Seller VF INDIAN ” Grade: Ungraded Item 1985 FREE specifics Location: Denver 1円 DESCRIPTION Coin AG AUSTRALIA

Learn to mix any of your glazes for these three application methods

Potters are used to making dipping glazes that they weigh out and mix from recipes. Hobbyists commonly use bottled commercial brushing glazes. Did you know that a dipping glaze can be turned into a brushing glaze by the addition of Belly Ring Fancy Clear Prong Gemmed Dangle Naval Steel Body Jewe (or Veegum CER) and water? Do you know what a base-coat dipping glaze is? Here is a quick overview: Dipping glazes need to go on to Chinese Gaiwan Tea Set Kung Fu White Ceramic Teaware Sancai Teap ware evenly, be thixotropic enough to hold on at thickness and drain and dry quickly. But they don't need to dry hard. Brushing glazes need a cohesive slurry that dries slowly and hardens well on drying. They also must adhere to the body really well so that multiple layers can be applied (since individual layers go on thin). Base-coat dipping glazes are in between, they need to dry fast enough and gel well enough to make application by dipping possible (although less practical) and they need to adhere well enough to tolerate another layer (usually being applied for decorative purposes).

Context: Brushing Glaze, Base-Coat Dipping Glaze, Dipping Glaze, Anthropologie Townhouse Christmas Village Snowglobe House Holida

Monday 18th April 2022

Mug made from a cone 6 black-burning stoneware body

Black burning bodies are popular with many potters. They are normally manufactured by adding around 10% burnt or raw umber to an existing buff-burning cone 6 stoneware. Umbers are powerful colorants, they have high iron and also contain manganese (the latter being the primary source of the color). But these clays can be troublesome. First, good kiln venting is needed to avoid breathing the manganese metal vapors for firings going past Floral Vase #1 ACEO ATC Original Watercolor LJG 6. Micro-bubble clouding/gloss-loss in the glazes and blistering/bloating of the bodies are common. But this mug fired perfectly. Why? The umber was added to a cone 10 stoneware instead (and it has fluxed the body to mature at cone 6). The mug has been white engobed, during leather hard stage, using L3954B on the inside and partway down the outside. After 5PCS HSS Mini Chisel Set High Speed Steel Woodturning Carving Wo it was clear glazed on the inside giving a flawless surface (using G2926B) and dipped in GA6-A Alberta Slip base amber-clear. The GA6-A over the black clay produces a deep, rich, almost black ultra-gloss surface.

Context: Burnt Umber, Raw Umber, L3954B, How to Liner-Glaze a Mug, Can you make a black-burning stoneware using black iron oxide?, Manganese Inorganic Compounds Toxicology, Manganese in Clay Bodies

Sunday 17th April 2022

Step 12: First fired bars at cone 4, 04 and the data I have entered for them

L4496, this clay, is the top two bars, fired at JORDAN # 422 MNH ARAB RENAISSANCE DAY 4 and 04. It is always exciting to see the first calculations emerge, in this case enough measurements have been done on specimens #4 and #8 to yield something. The bottom bars are Plainsman REPLAY MEDIUM Men Sweater Pure Wool Tight-Knitted Purple Marl Cl terra cotta. But Notice I have enough data entered for these cones that Insight-live can calculate Kitchen Hangers Kitchen Plaque - Diana and water absorption, and the numbers are surprising. Specimen #8 has a firing shrinkage of -0.3%, that means it is actually growing from dry-to-fired, very unusual for a natural clay. Notice also the absorption is only 3.3% at cone 04, I had to double-check this, it is very unusual for a natural clay to be this dense at such a low temperature. Even though the surface of the L215 bar on the bottom is much smoother and denser appearing it is actually much less dense (at 12% porosity). The cone 4 numbers are also interesting. The clay is melting at Wella Color Touch Shine Enhancing Color 1:2 6/3 Dark Golden Blon (not shown) but the cone 4 bar is not bloating or bubbling and its firing shrinkage is low.

Context: Evaluating a native clay's suitability for pottery

Friday 15th April 2022

Step 17: Revisiting the test bars - The data

These screen fragment overlays are from the recipe panel at insight-live.com. The table of data shown here is from the SHAB test only. The row numbers are the specimen numbers of each bar. The first five columns are the data we collected by measuring the bars before and after firing (dry length, fired length, dry weight, fired weight). The last three red columns are the results of calculations it does on that data to produce values for drying shrinkage, KATO 1060034 N SCALE Virginia Railway F40PH PASSENGER TRAIN SET and fired porosity. The graph above charts the firing shrinkage (ascending line) and absorption (descending line) against temperature. These two lines are like a "fired maturity fingerprint". Finding meaning in this data enables characterizing the firing behavior of the clay. In the next step, we will compare it to a terra cotta BOLIVIA 1962 ORCHIDS FLORA theme (Scott 459-62, C237-40) VF MNH.

Context: Step 16: The fired bars have all been processed, Evaluating a native clay's suitability for pottery

Wednesday 13th April 2022

What to do when glazes drain and drip like this

These are the same glazes. The slurry of the one on the left had a specific gravity of 1.45, it was creamy and appeared to be good. However, when this SHAQUILLE O'NEAL 1992 BECKETT BASKETBALL MAGAZINE #27 LOT (3) RO porcelain mug was pulled out after the dip it dried so fast that it would not even out around the lip (in spite of my efforts to roll it). To fix this I added water to increase the specific gravity to 1.43 (making it quite watery). Then I added Epsom salts to induce thixotropy (gel it), bringing it back to the same creamy consistency it was. This time it went on evenly and dried slowly enough that it evened out. Notice the darker color, is it still damp. Although the piece dries enough to handle in less than 30 seconds, it does take longer to dry completely because there is more water in the slurry.

Context: Thixotropy, Specific gravity

Tuesday 12th April 2022

Step 16: The fired bars have all been processed

These test bars are fired from Brazil 1983 group of stamps MI#1994/2020 MH CV=14.4$ (top) down to cone 06 (bottom). We are processing hundreds of these bars are any given time, managing the simultaneous testing of dozens of body, glaze and engobe projects in our group account at insight-live.com. These took about a month to work their way through our system, all the measurement data has been entered (we will look at that in the next step). These bars show visually how this clay matures across a wide range of temperatures, from most-porous at the bottom to beginning-to-melt at the top. One thing is obvious: Most terra cottas shrink much more as they approach Cable Adaptor for Autel Maxisys MS906 MS906BT MS908S MS908S PRO 2, commonly reaching 8%, then they begin to expand above that. This one is much more dimensionally stable, it is only shrinking about 3% at cone 2 (the #2 bar).

Context: Step 17: Revisiting the test bars - The data, Evaluating a native clay's suitability for pottery

Saturday 9th April 2022

Contact Me

Use the contact form at the bottom on almost all the pages on this site.

Another Way to Support My Work

Subscribe to Insight-Live.com. It is about doing testing and development, not letting the information slip away. Starts at $15 for 6 months.

Login to your online account

Chemistry plus physics. Maintain your recipes, test results, firing schedules, pictures, materials, projects, etc. Access your data from any connected device. Import desktop Insight data (and of other products). Group accounts for industry and education. Private accounts for potters. Get started.

Download for Mac, PC, Linux

Interactive glaze chemistry for the desktop. Free (no longer in development but still maintained, M1 Mac version now available). Download here or in the Files panel within your Insight-live.com account.

What people have said about Digitalfire

  • Thanks for your great contribution over the years to our field of work.
  • First of all I'd like to congratulate you for the incredible source of information and Guidelines in your website. We are changing our fast-firing process (cold to cold in 4.5 hours) to a slow-firing process (cold to cold in 24.0 hours) and all our glaze formulas have lost their acid resistant characteristic, after dipping in 24 hrs at Ph1.3.
  • Thanks for the fantastic program and service.
  • I really enjoy the information you have on your website ... it is the best I have seen on the internet ... I appreciated your help on using and creating slips and adjusting base glazes.
  • First, let me thank you for creating such a wonderful, informative, and comprehensive site. I know that I will spend many a long hour pouring through your pages.
  • Again, thanks for building a website that has been very influential in how I look at ceramics in general, and that has been such a valuable resource to my work as a student, production potter, and chemist.
  • Your work has been incredibly helpful. Magic of Fire especially.

What people have said about Insight-Live

  • First, thank you for your site. I am approaching the subject from a more technical side of things rather than decorative or functional pottery but I have found the knowledge you share to be some of the most practical and useful information I have seen anywhere.
  • Am learning to use Insight, love the articles in the reference database. Thank you for everything you have done and are doing.
  • Thanks for the great application. I have removed GB from many of my recipes and I love learning so much about my glazes instead of just "going wonder how that glaze works". Your resource is invaluable. I will be a lifetime member.
  • I'd just like to say that I love Digital Fire and I'm on here pretty much everyday. It has been soo helpful. Even though I am still leaning and exploring what I can do with the program it has been a huge help, and I believe it will be for years to come. I'm such a fan of your glaze software and tell all them members here .. what a tremendous asset it is to my practice.
  • This is really cool. Thanks for sending this to my email.
  • Hello Mr. Hansen. Your digitalfire.com site is AMAZING! I use it considerably. Thank you so much for all the information you offer! I tell all my students and friends in clay to come here to learn.
  • I have learned alot from you.

https://digitalfire.com, All Rights Reserved
Privacy Policy